Welding has been the main focus of my research work though I have also worked on casting and crystal growth. These are important areas in materials processing. I have been teaching materials processing, welding metallurgy, and the joining of various engineering materials. My book Welding Metallurgy (3rd edition 2021) has contributed significantly to the science of welding and is widely used in research, industry and education. It has been cited over 5,000 times (480 times in 2022).