Chin H. Wu

Professor

1261B Engineering Hall
1415 Engineering Drive
Madison, WI 53706

Ph: (608) 263-3078
Fax: (608) 262-5199
chinwu@engr.wisc.edu


Profile Summary

Fundamental understanding of physical processes in air-sea interactions is one of critical components for accurately predicting climate change. We are specifically interested in the role of waves breaking due to wave-current interactions. To elucidate these processes, experimental, theoretical, and numerical approaches are used. Work is underway to study kinematic and dynamic effects of sheared currents on extreme and breaking waves in the laboratory and field. Further we are examining the occurrence of freak wave and its characteristics. Our ultimate goal is to develop a temporal form of physics-based parametrization for momentum, heat, and humidity fluxes of the coupled atmospheric-ocean models to better predict wave and climate evolution.

Understanding the processes responsible for the resuspension, transport, and deposition of particle-associated, hazardous, organic contaminants in the bottom sediments of rivers and lakes is crucial to determining the cycling of pollutants and their biological productivity for public health and safety and for the protection and enhancement of aquatic life. Currents, waves, and turbulence are the primary agents for eroding sediments from rivers, beaches, and coastal bluffs and transporting them throughout water bodies. These processes repeat over various time scales associated with differential heating and cooling cycles to episodic storms until the sediments are deposited in low energy environments. To better quantify the fate and transport of the contaminated sediments under current/wave dominated flows, we are developing an innovative in-situ instrument package to measure waves, current and sediment profiles, sediment resuspension rates, depositions, and particle size distributions. In addition, a well-controlled automated image sediment erosion test flume system is developed to further quantify bottom sediment characteristics. Our ultimate goal is to understand the coastal processes responsible for the resuspension, transport, and deposition of contaminated sediments, the cycling of pollutants, and biological productivity in the Great Lakes, inland lakes, streams, or rivers.

The effects of hydrologic and hydrodynamic characteristics on environmental impacts of many lakes such as bloom formation, water quality and shoreline erosion have been great concerns to the local communities as well as national agencies. We are developing a three-dimensional non-hydrostatic and stratified flow model (3DNHYS) to examine general circulation pattern, surface and internal waves and their breaking over shoaling bathymetry. In addition, the 3DNYHS model will be coupled with a cohesive sediment transport model, a water quality model, and an ecosystem model to examine the interactions of physical, chemical, and biological processes in lakes response to anthropogenic pollution and weather or climate changes. An interdisciplinary approach is undertaken to further address their environmental and social impacts. 

Education

  • PhD, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  • MS, National Taiwan University
  • BS, National Taiwan University

Research Interests

  • Air-sea interactions and surface wave dynamics
  • Coastal processes and sustainable coastal development
  • Environmental fluid mechanics
  • Environmental monitoring and photogrammetry
  • Groundwater and surface water interactions
  • Hydraulics and geomorphic/ecological processes, river/stream restoration
  • Limnology, lake and wetland restoration
  • Water resources assessment and management

Awards, Honors and Societies

  • Polygon Outstanding Instructor Award - UW-Madison College of Engineering, 2001-2006, 2008-2009, 2011-2013
  • Citizen of the Year 2012, Yahara Lakes Association - INFOS Yahara
  • University Housing Honored Instructors Award, 2010
  • James G. Woodburn Award for Excellence in Teaching, UW-Madison College of Engineering, 2007
  • Class of 1955 Distinguished Teaching Award, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2007
  • Chi Epsilon James M. Robbins Excellence in Teaching Awards for the North Central District, 2003-2004
  • ASCE Student Chapter CEE Outstanding Professor of the Year, 2001-2004
  • Sigma Xi Scientific Research Society, 1999
  • Arthur T. Ippen Fellowship, M.I.T, 1998
  • Phi Tau Phi Scholastic Honor Society, 1991
  • University Scholarship for Outstanding Undergraduate Students at National Taiwan University, 1985-1989
  • International Association of Great Lakes
  • American Physical Society
  • American Geophysical Union
  • American Society of Civil Engineers, Fluid Committes

Publications

Papers published in referred journals 

  1. Bechle, A.J. and Wu, C.H., 2014. The Lake Michigan meteotsunamis of 1954 Revisited. Natural Hazards, In Press.
  2. Bechle, A.J. and Wu, C.H., 2014. An entropy-based velocity method for esturaine discharge measurement, Water Resources Research, Accepted under revision.
  3. Lin, Y.T. and Wu, C.H., 2014. A field study of nearshore environmental changes in response to newly-built coastal structures in Lake Michigan, J. of Great Lakes Research, 40, 102-114.
  4. Lin, Y.T. and Wu, C.H., 2014. The role of rooted emergent vegetation on periodically thermal-driven flow over a sloping bottom. Environmental Fluid Mechanics, 10.1007/s10652-014-9336-5, In Press.
  5. Lathrop, R.C., Reimer, J.R., Sorsa, K.K., Steinhorst, G.M., Wu, C.H., 2013. Madison\'s lake beaches - results of a three-year pilot study, Lakeline, 33(3), 31-38.
  6. Lin. Y.T. and Wu, C.H., 2013. Response of bottom sediment stability after carp removal in a small lake, Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology, 49 (03), 157-168.  
  7. Shade, A.,  Read, J.S. ; Youngblut, N.D., Fierer, N., Knight, R., Kratz, T.K., Lottig, N.R., Roden, E.E., Stanley, E.H., Stombaugh, J., Whitaker, R.J., Wu, C.H., McMahon, K.D., Lake microbial communities are resilient after a whole-ecosystem disturbance, ISME 6(12), 2153-2167, 2012.
  8. Kara, E.L., Hanson P, Hamilton, D.P., Hipsey, M.R., McMahon, K.D., Read, J.S., Winslow, L., Dedrick, J., Rose, K., Carey, C.C., Bertilsson, S., Motta Marques, D.D., Beversdorf, L., Miller, T., Wu, C., Hsieh, Y.F., Gaiser, E., Kratz, T., Time-scale dependence in numerical simulations: Assessment of physical, chemical, and biological predictions in a stratified lake at temporal scales of hours to months, Environmental Modeling and Software, 35, 104-121, 2012.
  9. Bechle, A.J., Wu, C.H., Liu, W.C., and Kimura, N., Development and Application of an Automated River-Estuary Discharge Imaging System, J. of Hydraulic Engineering-ASCE, 138(4), 327-339, 2012.
  10. Read, J.S., Hamilton, D.P., Desai, A.R., Rose, K.C., MacIntyre, S., Lenters, J.D.,  Smyth, R.L., Hanson, P.C., Cole, J.J., Staehr, P.A., Rusak, J.A., Pierson, D.C., Brookes, J.D., Laas, A., Wu, C.H., Lake-size dependency of wind shear and convection as controls on gas exchange, Geophysical Research Letters, 39, L09405, doi:10.1029/2012GL051886, 2012.
  11. Kimura, N., Liu, W.C., Wu, C.H., Bechle, A. J., Chen, W.B., and Huang, W.C., Flow measurement with multi-instrumentation in a tidal-affected river, Water and Environment Journal, 25(4), 563-572, 2011.
  12. Read, J.S., Hamilton, D.P., Jones, I.D., Kohji Muraoka, K., Winslow, L.A., Kroiss R., Wu, C.H., and Gaiser, E., Derivation of lake mixing and stratification indices from high-resolution lake buoy data using \'Lake Analyzer\', Environmental Modelling & Software, 1325-1336, 2011.
  13. Shade, A., Read, J.S., Welkie, D., Kratz, T.K., Wu, C.H., and McMahon, K.D., Resistance, resilience, and recovery: aquatic bacterial dynamics after water column disturbance. Environmental Microbiology, 13(10), 2752-2767, 2011.
  14. Choi, D.Y., Wu, C.H., and Young, C.C., An efficient curvilinear non-hydrostatic model for simulating surface water waves, International J. for Numerical Methods in Fluids, 66(9), 1093-1115, 2011.
  15. Atilla, N., McKinley, G.A., Bennington, V. Baehr, M., Urban, N., DeGrandpre, M., Desai, A.R., and Wu, C.H., Observed variability of Lake Superior pCO2, Limnology and Oceanography, 56(3), 775-786, 2011.
  16. Read, J.S., Shade A., Wu, C.H., Gorzalski, A., and McMahon, K.D., Gradual Entrainment Lake Inverter (GELI): A novel device for experimental lake mixing, Limnology and Oceanography: Methods, 9:14-28, 2011.
  17. Bechle, A.J. and Wu, C.H., Virtual wave gauges based upon stereo imaging for measuring surface wave characteristics, Coastal Engineering, 58(4), 305-316, 2011.
  18. Bennington V., McKinley, G.A., Kimura, N., and Wu, C.H., The general circulation of Lake Superior: mean, variability, and trends from 1979-2006, J. Geophysical Research-Oceans, 115, C12015, 1-14, 2010.
  19. Liu, P.C., Wu, C.H., Bechle, A.J., MacHutchon, K.R., and Chen, H.S., What do we know about freaque waves in the ocean and lakes and how do we know it, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 10, 2191-2196, 2010.
  20. Lin, Y.T, Wu, C.H., Fratta, D., Kung, K.-J.S, 2010. Integrated acoustic and electromagnetic wave-based technique to estimate sub-bottom sediment properties in aquatic environment, Near Surface Geophysics, 8(3), 213-221, 2010.
  21. Young C.C. and Wu, C.H., 2010. A σ - coordinate non-hydrostatic model with embedded Boussinesq-type like equations for modeling deep-water waves. International J. for Numerical Methods in Fluids, 63(12),1448-1470, 2010
  22. Wu, C.H., Young, C.C., Chen, Q., Lynett, P.J., 2010. Efficient non-hydrostatic modeling of nonlinear waves from deep to shallow water, J. of Waterway, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering, 136(2), 104-118, 2010.
  23. Young, C.C., Wu, C.H., 2010. Non-hydrostatic modeling of nonlinear deep-water wave groups, J. of Engineering Mechanics-ASCE, 136(2), 155-167.
  24. Kamarainen, A., Yuan, H.L, Wu, C.H., Carpenter, S.R., 2009. Estimates of phosphorus entrainment in Lake Mendota: A comparison of one-dimensional and three-dimensional approaches, Limnology and Oceanography: Methods. 7, 553-567.
  25. Lee, C., Wu, C.H., and Hoopes, J.A., 2009. Simultaneous particle size and concentration measurements by a back-lighted particle imaging system, Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, 20 (4-5), 189-199.
  26. Young, C.C., Wu, C.H., Liu, W.C., and Kuo, J.T., 2009. A higher-order non-hydrostatic sigma model for simulating non-linear refraction-diffraction of water waves. Coastal Engineering, 56(9), 919-930.
  27. Rogers, J. S. Potter, K.W., Hoffman, A.R., Hoopes, J.A, Wu, C.H., and Armstrong, D.E., 2009. Hydrologic and water quality functions of a small wetland, J. of the American Water Resources Association, 45 (3), 628-640.
  28. Young, C.C. and Wu, C.H., 2009. An efficient and accurate non-hydrostatic model with embedded Boussinesq-type like equations for surface wave modeling, International J. for Numerical Methods in Fluids, 60(1), 27-53.
  29. Liu, W.C., Lee, C.H., Wu, C.H., Kimura, N. 2009. Modeling diagnosis of suspended sediment transport in tidal estuarine system. DOI 10.1007/s00254-008-1448-0, Environmental Geology, 57(7), 1661-1673.
  30. Zhu, Q., Haase, M., and Wu, C.H., 2009. Modeling the capacity of a novel flow-energy harvester. Applied Mathematical Modelling, 33, 2207-2217.
  31. Lin, Y.T., Schuettpelz, C., Wu, C.H., and Fratta, D., 2009. A combined acoustic and electromagnetic wave-based technique for bathymetry and sub-bottom profiling in shallow waters. Journal of Applied Geophysics, 68(2), 203-219.
  32. Hanson, P.C. Carpenter, S.R., Kimura, N., Wu, C.H., Cornelius, S.P., Kratz, T.K., 2008. Evaluation of metabolism models for free-water dissolved oxygen methods in lakes, Limnology and Oceanography: Methods, 6, 454-465
  33. Liu, W.C., Chen, W.B., and Wu, C.H., 2008. Modelling effects of realignment of Keeling River, Taiwan. Maritime Engineering, 161, MA2, 73-97.
  34. Ng, C.O. and Wu, C.H., 2008. Dispersion of suspended particles in a wave boundary layer over a viscoelastic bed. International J. of Engineering Science, (46), 50-65.
  35. Liu, W.C., Chen, W.B., Kuo, J.T., and Wu, C.H., 2008. Numerical determination of residence time and age in a partially mixed estuary using three-dimensional hydrodynamic model.  Continental Shelf Research, 28(8), 1068-1088.
  36. Young, C.C., Wu, C.H., Kuo, J.T., and Liu, W.C., 2007. A higher-order sigma-coordinate non-hydrostatic model for nonlinear surface waves, Ocean Engineering, I 34(10), 1357-1370.
  37. Carpenter, S.R., Benson, B.J., Biggs, R., Chipman, J.W., Foley, J.A. Foley, Golding, S.A., Hammer, R.B., Hanson, P.C., Johnson, P.T.J., Kamarainen,A.M., Kratz, T.K., Lathrop, R.C., McMahon, K.D., Provencher, B., Rusak, J.A., Solomon, C.T., Stanley, E.H., Turner, M.G., Vander Zanden, M.J., Wu, C.H. and Yuan, H., 2007. Understanding regional change: Comparison of two lake districts. BioScience: 57(4), 323-335.
  38. Liu, D., Wu, C.H., Linden, K., and Ducoste, J.J., 2007. Numerical simulation of UV disinfection reactors: evaluation and alternative turbulence models, Applied Mathematical Modelling, 31(9), 1753-1769.
  39. Wu, C.H. and Yuan, H.L., 2007. Efficient non-hydrostatic modelling of surface waves interacting with structures, Applied Mathematical Modelling, 31(4), 687-699.
  40. Swenson, M.J., Wu, C.H., Edil, T.B., and Mickelson, D.M., 2006. Bluff recession rates and wave impact along the Wisconsin coast of Lake Superior, J. of Great Lakes Research, 32(3), 512-530.
  41. Yao, A. and Wu, C.H., 2006. Spatial and temporal characteristics of transient extreme wave profiles on depth-varying currents, J. of Engineering Mechanics-ASCE, 132 (9), 1015-1025.
  42. Wanek, J.M. and Wu, C.H., 2006. Automated trinocular stereo imaging system for three-dimensional surface wave measurements, Ocean Engineering, 33(5-6) 723-747.
  43. Yuan, H.L. and Wu, C.H., 2006. Fully non-hydrostatic modeling of surface waves, J. of Engineering Mechanics-ASCE, 132 (4), 447-456.
  44. Choi, D.Y. and Wu, C.H., 2006. A new efficient 3D non-hydrostatic free-surface flow model for simulating water wave motions, Ocean Engineering, 33(5-6) 587-609.
  45. Yao, A. and Wu, C.H., 2005. Incipient breaking of unsteady waves on sheared currents, Physics of Fluids, 17, 082104.
  46. Brown, E.A., Wu, C.H., Mickelson, D.M., and Edil T.B, 2005. Factors controlling rates of bluff recession at two sites on Lake Michigan, J. of Great Lakes Research, 31(3), 306-321.
  47. Dussaillant, A.R., Wu, C.H., and Potter, K.W., 2005. Infiltration of stormwater in bioretention cells: numerical model and field experiment, Ingenieria Hidraulica En Mexico 20(2) 5-17.
  48. Yao, A. and Wu, C.H., 2005. An automated image-based technique for tracking surface wave profiles, Ocean Engineering, 32(2) 157-173.
  49. Wu, C.H. and Yao, A., 2004. Laboratory measurements of limiting freak waves on currents, J. Geophysical Research-Oceans, 109, C12, C12002, 1-18, doi:10.1029/2004JC002612.
  50. Yuan, H.L. and Wu, C.H., 2004. An implicit 3D fully non-hydrostatic model for free-surface flows, International J. for Numerical Methods in Fluids, 46, 709-733.
  51. Yao, A. and Wu, C.H., 2004. Energy dissipation of unsteady wave breaking on currents. J. Physical Oceanography, 34, N10, 2288-2304.
  52. Lee, C., Wu, C.H. and J.A. Hoopes, 2004. Automated sediment erosion testing system using digital imaging, J. Hydraulic Engineering - ASCE, 130, 8, 771-781.
  53. Dussaillant, A.R., Wu, C.H., and Potter, K.W., 2004. Richards equation model of a rain garden, J. of Hydrologic Engineering - ASCE, 3, 219-225.
  54. Yuan, H.L. and Wu, C.H., 2004. A two-dimensional vertical non-hydrostatic sigma model with an implicit method for free-surface flows, International J. for Numerical Methods in Fluids. 44, 811-835.
  55. Wu, C.H. and Nepf, H.M, 2002. Breaking wave criteria and energy losses for three-dimensional breaking waves, J. Geophysical Research-Oceans, C10, 3177, doi:10.1029 2001JC001077, 41-1-18,
  56. Nepf, H.M., Wu, C.H., Chan, E.S., 1998. A comparison of two- and three-dimensional wave breaking, J. Physical Oceanography, 28, N7, 1496-1510.
  57. Tasi, T.L., Wu, C.H., Huang, L.H., Yang, J.C., 1998. Layer and regional land subsidence model, J. Chinese Institute of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering, Vol. 10, 397-405.

 

 Books or conference referred proceedings edited

  1. Liu, P.C., Wu, C.H., Bechle, A.J., Chen, H.S., and MacHutchon, K.R., 2012. What we do not know about freaque waves in the ocean and lakes and where to go from here. Proceedings, 31st International Conference on Oceans, Offshore and Arctic Engineering (OMAE2012), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, July 1-6, 2012. ASME, 7 pp 12
  2. Liu, P.C., Wu, C.H., MacHutchon, Schwab, D.J., 2009. An analysis of measurement from a 3D oceanic wave field, WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment.,  126(DOI:10.2495/CP090021), 15-26.
  3. Wu, C.H., Young, C.C., 2009. Efficient non-hydrostatic modeling for free-surface waves in deep and shallow water. Proceedings of the ASME 28th Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, OMAE2009-79894, 8 pp.
  4. MacHutchon, K.R., Wessels, W.J., Liu, P.C., and Wu, C.H., 2009. The use of streamed digital video data and binocular stereoscopic image system (BASIS) processing methods to analyze ocean wave field kinematics. Proceedings of the ASME 28th Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, OMAE2009-79853.
  5. Schuettpelz, C., Lin, Y.T., Fratta, D., Wu, C.H., 2008. Elastic and electromagnetic wave-based techniques for bottom and sub-bottom profiling in shallow waters, GeoCongress, 261-268.
  6. Liu, P.C., Schwab, DJ, Wu, C.H. and MacHutchon, K.R. 2008. Wave heights in a 4-D ocean wave field. Proceedings, OMAE 2008 ASME 27th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, Estoril, Portugal, June 15-20. 5 pp.
  7. Wu, C.H., Young, C.C., and Yuan, H.L., 2008. Non-hydrostatic modeling of vegetation effects on wave and flow motions, 10th Estuarine and Coastal Modeling, ASCE, 304-321.
  8. Wu, C.H., Choi, D.Y., and Yuan, H.L., 2007. An efficient curvilinear non-hydrostatic model for free-surface waves, Proceedings of the 30th International Conference in Coastal Engineering, 49-61.
  9. Kratz, T.K., Arzberger, P., Benson, B.J., Chiu, C.Y., Chiu, K., Ding, L., Fountain, T., Hamilton, D., Hanson, P.C., Hu, Y.H., Lin, F.P., McMullen, D.F., Tilak,S., Wu, C.H., 2006. Towards a Global Lake Ecological Observatory Network. Publications of the Karelian Institute 145:51-63.
  10. Wu, C.H. and Yuan, H., 2006. Efficiency and Accuracy of Non-hydrostatic modeling of free-surface flows, 9th Estuarine and Coastal Modeling, ASCE. 434-447.
  11. Liu, P. C., MacHutchon, K.R., and Wu, C.H., 2004. Exploring rogue waves from observations in South Indian Ocean, In Rogue Waves. M. Olagnon and M. Prevosto (Eds.). Ifremer, Brest, France, 1-10.
  12. Wu, C.H. and Yuan, H.L., 2004. A fully non-hydrostatic three-dimensional model with implicit algorithm, 8th Estuarine and Coastal Modeling, ASCE, ISBN: 0784407347.
  13. Wu, C.H., Yao, A., and Chang, K.A., 2004. DPIV measurements of unsteady deep-water wave breaking on following currents, \"PIV and Modeling Water Wave Phenomena, World Scientific Publication Co., Advances in Coastal and Ocean Engineering - Vol. 9.

Links

Courses

Summer 2014

  • CIVENGR 699 - Independent Study
  • CIVENGR 310 - Fluid Mechanics
  • CIVENGR 299 - Independent Study
  • CIVENGR 291 - Problem Solving Using Computer Tools
  • CIVENGR 999 - Advanced Independent Study
  • CIVENGR 990 - Thesis
  • CIVENGR 890 - Pre-Dissertator\'s Research
  • CIVENGR 790 - Master\'s Research or Thesis
  • GLE 999 - Independent Work
  • GLE 990 - Research and Thesis
  • GLE 890 - Pre-Dissertator\'s Research
  • GLE 790 - Master\'s Research or Thesis
  • GLE 699 - Independent Study
  • GLE 291 - Problem Solving Using Computer Tools
  • CIVENGR 618 - Special Topics in Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics
  • CIVENGR 411 - Open Channel Hydraulics
  • CIVENGR 299 - Independent Study
  • CIVENGR 291 - Problem Solving Using Computer Tools
  • CIVENGR 999 - Advanced Independent Study
  • CIVENGR 990 - Thesis
  • CIVENGR 890 - Pre-Dissertator\'s Research
  • CIVENGR 790 - Master\'s Research or Thesis
  • CIVENGR 699 - Independent Study
  • GLE 699 - Independent Study
  • GLE 291 - Problem Solving Using Computer Tools
  • CIVENGR 999 - Advanced Independent Study
  • CIVENGR 990 - Thesis
  • CIVENGR 890 - Pre-Dissertator\'s Research
  • CIVENGR 790 - Master\'s Research or Thesis
  • CIVENGR 699 - Independent Study
  • Profile Summary

    Fundamental understanding of physical processes in air-sea interactions is one of critical components for accurately predicting climate change. We are specifically interested in the role of waves breaking due to wave-current interactions. To elucidate these processes, experimental, theoretical, and numerical approaches are used. Work is underway to study kinematic and dynamic effects of sheared currents on extreme and breaking waves in the laboratory and field. Further we are examining the occurrence of freak wave and its characteristics. Our ultimate goal is to develop a temporal form of physics-based parametrization for momentum, heat, and humidity fluxes of the coupled atmospheric-ocean models to better predict wave and climate evolution.

    Understanding the processes responsible for the resuspension, transport, and deposition of particle-associated, hazardous, organic contaminants in the bottom sediments of rivers and lakes is crucial to determining the cycling of pollutants and their biological productivity for public health and safety and for the protection and enhancement of aquatic life. Currents, waves, and turbulence are the primary agents for eroding sediments from rivers, beaches, and coastal bluffs and transporting them throughout water bodies. These processes repeat over various time scales associated with differential heating and cooling cycles to episodic storms until the sediments are deposited in low energy environments. To better quantify the fate and transport of the contaminated sediments under current/wave dominated flows, we are developing an innovative in-situ instrument package to measure waves, current and sediment profiles, sediment resuspension rates, depositions, and particle size distributions. In addition, a well-controlled automated image sediment erosion test flume system is developed to further quantify bottom sediment characteristics. Our ultimate goal is to understand the coastal processes responsible for the resuspension, transport, and deposition of contaminated sediments, the cycling of pollutants, and biological productivity in the Great Lakes, inland lakes, streams, or rivers.

    The effects of hydrologic and hydrodynamic characteristics on environmental impacts of many lakes such as bloom formation, water quality and shoreline erosion have been great concerns to the local communities as well as national agencies. We are developing a three-dimensional non-hydrostatic and stratified flow model (3DNHYS) to examine general circulation pattern, surface and internal waves and their breaking over shoaling bathymetry. In addition, the 3DNYHS model will be coupled with a cohesive sediment transport model, a water quality model, and an ecosystem model to examine the interactions of physical, chemical, and biological processes in lakes response to anthropogenic pollution and weather or climate changes. An interdisciplinary approach is undertaken to further address their environmental and social impacts. 


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