Sindo Kou

Professor

Materials Science and Engineering (mail)
1509 University Avenue
Madison, WI 53706

Ph: (608) 262-0576
kou@engr.wisc.edu


Profile Summary

Welding has been the main focus of my research work though I have also worked on casting and crystal growth. These are important areas in materials processing. I have been teaching materials processing, welding metallurgy, and the joining of various engineering materials. My book Welding Metallurgy (2nd edition 2003) has contributed significantly to the science of welding and is widely used in research, industry and education. The 3rd edition will be in preparation soon.

Education

  • PhD (metallurgy) 1978, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  • MS (materials engineering) 1974, University of Wisconsin
  • BS (chemical engineering) 1971, National Taiwan University

Research Interests

My research work has been on understanding and controlling cracking, segregation, microstructure and transport phenomena during welding, casting and crystal growth. Examples of my current interests include:

  1. Welding of magnesium: Being the lightest structural metal, Mg can help reduce vehicle weight and hence improve fuel efficiency. We are interested in applying advanced gas-metal arc welding (GMAW or MIG) to overcome spattering. GMAW is a widely used process for Al but not yet for Mg.
  2. Welding aluminum to steel: The automotive industry has been interested in dissimilar-metal welding. We are interested in applying advanced GMAW to improve the joint strength.
  3. Welding of steels: P91 is a creep-resistant ferritic steel with improved performance at high temperatures and under higher pressures. Filler wires for welding P91 steel are needed.

Awards, Honors and Societies

A. Research – American Welding Society (AWS)

1.         Fellow, American Welding Society (AWS), 2002,

2.         Comfort A. Adams Lecture Award (most prestigious AWS award in welding research; presented to an outstanding scientist or engineer for a lecture describing a new or distinctive development in the field of welding), AWS, 2012 – title of the lecture: “Fluid Flow and Solidification in Welding: three decades of fundamental research at the University of Wisconsin”,

3.         Warren F. Savage Memorial Award (presented to the best welding-metallurgy paper), AWS, 2012,

4.         Charles H. Jennings Memorial Award (presented to the best university, i.e., fundamental, paper), AWS, 2010,

5.         Warren F. Savage Memorial Award, AWS, 2009,

6.         Warren F. Savage Memorial Award, AWS, 2008,

7.         William Spraragen Award (presented to the best paper of all categories), AWS, 2007,

8.         Warren F. Savage Memorial Award, AWS, 2006,

9.         Charles H. Jennings Memorial Award, AWS, 2002,

10.       Charles H. Jennings Memorial Award, AWS, 2001,

B. Research – Materials Societies

11.       Fellow, American Society for Metals (ASM International), 1997,

12.       Bruce Chalmers Award (for “outstanding contributions to the science and/or technology of materials processing”), The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS), 2013,

13.       John Chipman Award (for “excellence and originality in contributing to process technology of iron and steel”), the Iron and Steel Society of AIME, 1980.

C. Research – Universities and Institutions

14.       Byron Bird Award for Excellence in a Research Publication (for “the comprehensive, authoritative book Welding Metallurgy, which contributes significantly to the science of welding and is widely used in research, industry and education”), College of Engineering, University of Wisconsin, 2013,

15.       Mexican Academy of Sciences Distinguished Visiting Professor, COMIMSA (an industrial research institute under the Mexican National Council of Science and Technology), 2010,

16.       Outstanding Alumnus Award, Department of Materials Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 2010.

 D. Education

17.       Chancellor’s Award for Distinguished Teaching, University of Wisconsin, 1999,

18.       Benjamin Smith Reynolds Award for Excellence in Teaching, College of Engineering, University of Wisconsin, 1999,

19.       Outstanding Instructor Award, Polygon Engineering Council, University of Wisconsin, 1996,

20.       Adams Memorial Membership Award (for outstanding activities in teaching welding), AWS, 1986.

Publications

Books

  1. S. Kou, Welding Metallurgy, 2nd edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY (2003).
  2. S. Kou, Transport Phenomena in Materials Processing, John Wiley and Sons, New York (1996).

Patents

1. V. Firouzdor and S. Kou, “Method of Friction Stir Welding Dissimilar Metals and Workpiece Assemblies Formed Thereby,” pending.  

2. S. Kou and G. Cao, “Arc-Enhanced Friction Stir Welding,” US Patent 7,078,647, 2006.  Used a simple welding arc to preheat (without melting or filler metal) the workpiece to reduce tool wear and increase the welding speed.

3. S. Kou and Y. Tao, “Method for Preparing Homogeneous Bridgman-Type Single Crystals,” US Patent 5,650,008, 1997.  Modified the Bridgman crystal growth process by zone-leveling to eliminate macrosegregation along single crystals, e.g., Cd1-xZnxTe.

4. S. Kou and M. S. Lin, “Shape and Segregation Control in Czochralski Growth,” US Patent 5,370,078, 1994.  Modified the Czochralski crystal growth process by zone-leveling to eliminate macrosegregation along single crystals, e.g., Ga1-xInxAs.

5. S. Kou and C. W. Lan, “Contactless Heater Floating Zone Refining and Crystal Growth,” US Patent 5,217,565, 1993.  Modified the floating-zone crystal growth process to grow single crystals significantly larger in diameter, by fast counter-rotating the crystal and the feed rod to suppress surface tension-driven flow and hence reduce the zone height.

6. S. Kou, “Edge-Defined Contact Heater Apparatus and Method for Floating-Zone Crystal Growth,” US Patent 5,114,528, 1992. Modified the floating-zone crystal growth process to grow shaped single crystals.

Papers

  1. S. Kou, “Fluid Flow and Solidification in Welding: Three Decades of Fundamental Research at the University of Wisconsin”, Welding Journal, vol. 91, 2012, pp. 287s-302s (AWS 2012 Comfort A. Adams Lecture).
  2. S. Kou, V. Firouzdor and I. Haygood, Keynote Lecture on “Hot Cracking in Welds of Aluminum and Magnesium Alloys”, Hot Cracking Phenomena in Welds III, edited by J. C. Lippold, Th. Böllinghaus and C. E. Cross, Springer-Verlag, 2011, pp. 3-23.
  3. G. Cao and S. Kou, “Predicting and Reducing Liquation-Cracking Susceptibility Based on Temperature vs. Fraction Solid,” Welding Journal, vol. 85, 2006, pp. 9s to 18s.
  4. V. Firouzdor and S. Kou, “Al-to-Cu Friction Stir Lap Welding”, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, vol. 43, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 303-315.
  5. V. Firouzdor and S. Kou, “Al-to-Mg Friction Stir Butt Welding: Effect of Material Position, Travel Speed and Rotation Speed”, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, vol. 41, Issue 11, 2010, pp. 2914-2935.
  6. V. Firouzdor and S. Kou, “Al-to-Mg Friction Stir Welding: Effect of Positions of Al and Mg with Respect to the Welding Tool,” Welding Journal, vol. 88, 2009, pp. 213s-224s. 
  7. S. Kou, C. Limmaneevichitr and P. S. Wei, “Oscillatory Marangoni Flow: A Fundamental Study by Conduction-Mode Laser Spot Welding”, Welding Journal, vol. 90, 2011, pp. 229-s to 240-s.
  8. C. Limmaneevichitr and S. Kou, “Visualization of Marangoni Convection in Simulated Weld Pools”, Welding Journal, vol. 79, 2000, p. 126-s.
  9. Y. K. Yang and S. Kou, “Macrosegregation Mechanisms in Arc Welds Made with Dissimilar Filler Metals”, Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, vol. 15, No. 1, 2010, pp. 15-30.
  10. Y. K. Yang and S. Kou, “Fusion-Boundary Macrosegregation in Dissimilar-Filler Al-Cu Welds”, Welding Journal, vol. 86, 2007, pp. 331s to 339s.
  11. S. Kou and D. K. Sun:  \"Fluid Flow and Weld Penetration in Stationary Arc Welds\", Metallurgical Transactions A, vol. 16A, 1985, p. 203.
  12. H. Choi, Y. Sun, H. Konishi, S. Kou, X. C. Li, “Nanoparticles-Induced Superior Hot Tearing Resistance of A206 Alloy”, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 2013, Volume 44, pp. 1897-1907.
  13. M. De Cicco, H. Konishi, G. Cao, H. Choi, L. Turng, J. H. Perepezko, S. Kou, R. Lakes and X. Li, “Strong, Ductile Magnesium-Zinc Nanocomposites,” Metallurgical and Materials Transactions, vol. 40A, No. 12, 2009, pp. 3038-3045.
  14. G. Cao and S. Kou, “Onset of Hot Tearing in Ternary Mg-Al-Sr Alloy Castings,” Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, vol. 41A, 2010, pp. 2139-2150.
  15. G. Cao and S. Kou, “Hot Tearing in Ternary Mg-Al-Ca Alloy Castings,” Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, vol. 37A, 2006, pp. 3647-3663.

Courses

Fall 2014-2015

  • MS&E 890 - Pre-Dissertator\'s Research
  • MS&E 803 - Special Topics in Materials Science
  • MS&E 790 - Master\'s Research or Thesis
  • MS&E 699 - Independent Study
  • MS&E 332 - Macroprocessing of Materials
  • Secondary Contact

    Room 1103
    Engineering Research Building (office)
    1500 Engineering Drive
    Madison, WI 53706

    Alt Ph: (608) 262-0576

    Profile Summary

    Welding has been the main focus of my research work though I have also worked on casting and crystal growth. These are important areas in materials processing. I have been teaching materials processing, welding metallurgy, and the joining of various engineering materials. My book Welding Metallurgy (2nd edition 2003) has contributed significantly to the science of welding and is widely used in research, industry and education. The 3rd edition will be in preparation soon.


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