Welding has been the main focus of my research work though I have also worked on casting and crystal growth. These are important areas in materials processing. I have been teaching materials processing, welding metallurgy, and the joining of various engineering materials. My book Welding Metallurgy (2nd edition 2003) has contributed significantly to the science of welding and is widely used in research, industry and education. The 3rd edition will be in preparation soon.