Bezalel C. Haimson

Professor Emeritus

225 Materials Science and Engineering Building
1509 University Avenue
Madison, WI 53706

Ph: (608) 262-2563
Fax: (608) 262-8353
bhaimson@wisc.edu

Primary Affiliation:
Materials Science and Engineering

Additional Affiliations:
Geological Engineering,


Profile Summary

Knowledge of the stress conditions in rock formations is important in tectonics and earthquake studies, in the design of structures in rock, and in the extraction of minerals by in situ methods. We developed the hydrofracturing method, which is now the universally accepted technique for measuring stresses through boreholes drilled in both shallow and deep formations.

We search for alternative ways of estimating in situ stress at great depths. Currently, we are investigating the feasibility of using the borehole breakout phenomenon to obtain reliable information on magnitudes and directions of the stress tensor. In experiments with quartz-rich sandstones we discovered breakouts that are long and thin, and appear to be emptied compaction bands generated by the high stress concentration perpendicular to the maximum stress. This discovery may have important implications in the extraction of hydrocarbons.

We have designed and fabricated a true triaxial loading apparatus and have shown that the conventional Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion, which disregards the effect of the intermediate principal stress, is only a conservative estimate of strength. We were able to present the new criterion in the form of an elegant function relating the octahedral shear stress at failure to the mean normal stress acting on the fracture plane.

Education

  • BS (mining engineering) 1962, University of Witwatersrand
  • MS (mineral engineering/rock mechanics) 1966, University of Minnesota
  • PhD (mineral engineering/rock mechanics) 1968, University of Minnesota

Research Interests

  • rock mechanics
  • failure modes in rocks
  • true triaxial strength criteria
  • borehole instability and breakouts
  • strain localization in high porosity sandstones and compaction bands
  • rock stress and in situ stress measurements
  • hydraulic fracturing

Awards, Honors and Societies

  • 1970U.S. National Committee on Rock Mechanics Research Award in recognition for research achievements in rock mechanics (development of the hydraulic fracturing stress measurement method)
  • 1975American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C. A. Hogentolger Award for contributions to rocks and soils mechanics
  • 1990, 91, 94Polygon Engineering Council (University of Wisconsin) Outstanding Instructor Award
  • 1994U.S. National Committee for Rock Mechanics Applied Research Award for significant original contributions in rock mechanics
  • 1997Society of Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration (SME) Rock Mechanics Award for the development of hydraulic fracturing as an engineering method of in situ stress measurement
  • 1998Byron Bird Award, UW-Madison, in recognition of an outstanding, widely accepted engineering research publication which has had a profound influence in the academic and industrial communities
  • 2000 U.S. National Committee for Rock Mechanics Applied Research Award
  • 2006 American Rock Mechanics Association (ARMA) Award for Research in Rock Mechanics.
  • 2008 Fellow of the American Rock Mechanics Association (ARMA).

Publications

Books

  • Haimson, B. C., Editor, Rock Mechanics in the 1990\'s (published as a Supplementary Issue of the International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 30 (1993) 969 p.
  • Haimson, B. C., Editor, Hydraulic Fracturing Stress Measurements II, Special Volume of the International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences (1989) 289 p.
  • Zoback, M. D. and B. C. Haimson, Editors, Hydraulic Fracturing Stress Measurements I National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 270 p., 1983.

Selected Articles

  • Haimson, B. C. and Fairhurst, C., Initiation and extension of hydraulic fractures in rock, Soc. Petr. Engrg. J., 7, 310–318, 1967.
  • Haimson, B. C. and Fairhurst, C., In situ stress determination at great depth by means of hydraulic fracturing, in Rock Mechanics—Theory and Practice, (ed.) W. H. Somerton, Am. Inst. Mining Engrg., 559–584, 1970.
  • Haimson, B. C., Earthquake related stresses at Rangely, Colorado, in New Horizons in Rock Mechanics, (eds.) H. R. Hardy and R. Stefanko, Am. Soc. of Civil Engr., 689–708, 1973.
  • Haimson, B. C. and Tharp, T., Real stresses around boreholes, Soc. Petrol. Engr. J., 14, 145–151, 1974.
  • Haimson, B. C., Mechanical behavior of rock under cyclic loading, in Advances in Rock Mechanics (Proc. 3rd Congress of the Intl. Soc. for Rock Mechanics), II, 373–378, 1974.
  • Haimson, B. C., The state of stress in the earth\'s crust, Reviews of Geophysics and Space Physics, 13, 350–352, 1975.
  • Haimson, B. C., Deep in situ stress measurements by hydrofracturing, Tectonophysics, 29, 41–47, 1975.
  • Haimson, B. C. and Voight, B., Crustal stress in Iceland, Pure and Applied Geophysics, 115, 153–190, 1977.
  • Haimson, B. C., Crustal stress in the continental United States as derived from hydrofracturing tests, in The Earth\'s Crust (Geophysical Monograph 20), (ed.) J. C. Heacock, American Geophysical Union, 576–592, 1977.
  • Haimson, B. C., Hartwig, K. T. and Doe, T. W., Underground caverns for energy storage using superconductive magnets, Underground Space, 137–142, 1978.
  • Haimson, B. C., Crustal stress in the Michigan Basin, Journal of Geophysical Research, 83(B12), 5857-5863, 1978.
  • Haimson, B. C., The hydrofracturing stress measuring method and recent field results, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. and Geomech, Abstr., 15, 167–178, 1978.
  • LaPointe, P. R. and Haimson, B. C., Classification of some Wisconsin rocks for the design of underground superconductive energy storage, in Subsurface Space (Proc. of the Int\'l Symp., Rockstore \'80) Pergamon Press, Oxford, 2, 713–720, 1980.
  • Haimson, B. C., Near surface and deep hydrofracturing stress measurements in the Waterloo quartzite, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. and Geomech. Abstr., 17, 81–88, 1980.
  • Haimson, B. C., Large scale rock fracturing laboratory testing, Geophys. Research Letters, 8 715–718, 1981.
  • Haimson, B. C. and F. Rumel, Hydrofracturing stress measurements in the IRDP drill hole at Reydarfjordur, Iceland, J. Geophys. Res., vol. 87, no. B8, 6631–6649, 1982.
  • Haimson, B. C., Unified fracture, stress and permeability studies, Engineering Geology, vol. 26–27, 427–431, 1983.
  • Haimson, B. C. and T. W. Doe, State of stress permeability and fractures in the Precambrian granite of northern Illinois, J. Geophysical Res., 88-B9, 7355–7372, 1983.
  • Haimson, B. C., Pre-excavation in situ stress measurements in the design of large underground openings, in Design and Performance of Underground Excavations, Eds. E. T. Brown and J. A. Hudson, British Geotechnical Society, London, pp. 183–190, 1984.
  • Haimson, B. C. and C. Herrick, Borehole breakouts-a new tool for estimating in situ stress? in rock stress, Ed. O. Stephansson, CENTEK Publishers, Lulea, Sweden, pp. 271–280, 1986.
  • Haimson, B. C., In situ stress, in Geophysics, Eds. C. G. Sammis and T. L. Henyey, part of a series of volumes entitled Methods of Experimental Physics, vol. 24B, Academic Press, pp. 377–408, 1987.
  • Haimson, B. C., Standard test method for determination of the in-situ stress in rock using the hydraulic fracturing method, invited, Designation D 4645-87, 1989 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, ASTM, Philadelphia (as is the practice of ASTM, no authorship credit is given in the publication; however, B. C. Haimson is the sole author of this committee-reviewed Standard), pp. 851–857, 1989.
  • Lee M. Y., and B. C. Haimson, Statistical evaluation of hydraulic fracturing stress measurement parameters, Int. J. of Rock Mech. and Min Sci., 26, 447–456, 1989.
  • Cheung, L. and B. C. Haimson, Laboratory study of hydraulic fracturing pressure data - how valid is their conventional interpretation?, Int. J. Rock Mech. and Min. Sci., 26, 595–604, 1989.
  • Haimson, B. C., L. W. Tunbridge, M. Y. Lee and C. M. Cooling, Measurement of rock stress using the hydraulic fracturing method in Cornwall, U.K.; Part 2 - Detailed interpretation of results, Intl. J. Rock Mech. and Min. Sci, 26, 361–372, 1989.
  • Haimson, B. C., M. Y. Lee, J. Baumgartner, and F. Rummel, Structure and plate tectonics inferences from in-situ stress measurements and fracture logging in Drillhole CY-4, Troodos Ophiolite, Cyprus, in Ophiolites, Ocean Crustal Analogues, eds. J. Malpas, E. M. Moores, A. Panayiotou, and C. Xenophoutos, Published by the Geological Survey Department of Cyprus, pp. 131–138, 1990.
  • Cho, T. F., M. E. Plesha and B. C. Haimson, Continuum modeling of jointed porous rock, Intl. J. for Num. and Analyt. Meth. in Geomech., 15, 333–353, 1991.
  • Hayashi, K. and B. C. Haimson, Characteristics of shut-in curves in hydraulic fracturing stress measurements and the determination of the in situ minimum compressive stress, J. Geophys. Res., 96, 18,311–18,321, 1991.
  • Cuisiat, F., and B. C. Haimson, Scale effects in rock mass stress measurements, Intl. J. Rock Mech. and Mining Sci., 29, 99–117, 1992.
  • Haimson, B. C., The hydraulic fracturing method of stress measurement; theory and practice, in Comprehensive Rock Engineering, edited by J. H. Hudson, Pergamon Press, vol. 3, p. 395–412, 1993.
  • Haimson, B. C. and I. Song, Laboratory study of borehole breakouts in Cordova Cream: a case of shear failure mechanism, Intl. J. Rock Mech. and Mining Sci., 30, 1047–1056, 1993.
  • Lee, M and B. Haimson, Laboratory study of borehole breakouts in Lac du Bonnet granite: a case of extensile failure mechanism, Intl. J. Rock Mech. and Mining Sci., 30, 1039–1046, 1993.
  • Huang, X., B. Haimson, M. Plesha and X. Qiu, An investigation of the mechanics of rock joints - Part I, Laboratory investigation, Intl. J. Rock Mech. and Mining Sci., 30, 257–269, 1993.
  • Talesnick, M.L., M.Y. Lee and B.C. Haimson, On the determination of elastic material parameters for transverse isotropic rocks from a single test specimen, Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, vol. 28, 17–36, no. 1, 1995.
  • B.C. Haimson, and I. Song, A new borehole failure criterion for estimating in situ stress from breakout span, in Proc. VIIIth International Congress on Rock Mechanics, Tokyo, Balkema Publ., vol. 1, p. 341–346, 1995.
  • B.C. Haimson, M.Y. Lee, N. Feknous, and P. de Courval, \"Stress Measurements at the Site of the SM3 Hydroelectric Scheme, Near Sept-Iles, Quebec\", Intl. J. Rock Mech. and Mining Sci., vol.33, 487-497,1996.
  • Haimson, B.C. and C. Chang, A New true triaxial cell for testing mechanical properties of rock, and Its use to determine rock strength and deformability of Westerly Granite, Int. J. Rock Mech and Mining Sci. 36 (2000) 285–296.
  • Chang, C. and B. Haimson, True triaxial strength and deformability of the KTB deep hole amphibolite J. Geophys. Res. 105 (2000) 18999-19013.
  • Song I. And B. Haimson, Hydraulic Fracturing Experiments in Highly Porous Berea Sandstone, in Pacific Rocks 2000 (eds. J. Garard, M. Liebman, C. Breeds, and T. Doe), Balkema, Rotterdam (2000) 1185-1192.
  • Haimson, B., Fracture-like Borehole Breakouts in High-Porosity Sandstone: Are they Caused by Compaction Bands?, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Part A, 26 (2001) 15–20.
  • Song I. And B. Haimson, Effect of pressurization rate and initial pore pressure on the magnitude of hydrofracturing breakdown pressure in Tablerock sandstone, in Rock Mechanics in the National Interest, A.A. Balkema, (2001) (in press).
  • Klaetsch A.R. and B.C. Haimson, Grain bonding and its effect on borehole breakout formation and final shape, in Rock Mechanics in the National Interest, A.A. Balkema (2001) (in press).
  • Chang C. and B. Haimson, Two distinct modes of compressive failure in rocks, in Rock Mechanics in the National Interest, A.A. Balkema (2001) (in press).
  • Song I. and B. Haimson, Effect of pressurization rate and initial pore pressure on the magnitude of hydrofracturing breakdown pressure in Tablerock sandstone, in Rock Mechanics in the National Interest, Elsworth, Tinucci and Heasley (eds.), A.A. Balkema, p. 235–242, 2001.
  • Haimson B.C and C. Chang, Deformation and failure of crystalline rocks subjected to true triaxial compressive stresses, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, vol. 26:1–2, 15–20, 2001.
  • Haimson B, and C. Chang, True triaxial strength of the KTB amphibolite under borehole wall conditions and its use to estimate the maximum horizontal in situ stress, J. Geophys. Res., vol. 107, no. B10, 2257–2271, 2002.
  • Klaetsch A.R. and B.C. Haimson, Porosity-dependent fracture-like breakouts in St. Peter sandstone, in Mining and Tunneling Innovation and Opportunity, Hammah et al. (eds.), Univ. of Toronto Press, pp. 1365–1372, 2002.
  • Haimson, B., The importance of well conceived in situ stress measurements for cavern design in mountainous terrain: A case history, in Proceedings of the International Society for Rock Mechanics Symposium on Rock Engineering for Mountainous Regions (Eurock 2002), C. da Gama and I. Sousa (eds.), Sociedade Portuguesa de Geotechnia, Lisbon, pp. 447–456, 2002.
  • Haimson B.C., Borehole breakouts in Berea sandstone reveal a new fracture mechanism, Pure and Applied Geophysics (PAGEOPH), 160, 813–831, 2003.
  • Haimson B, and J. Kovacich, Borehole Instability in High-Porosity Berea Sandstone and Factors Affecting Dimensions and Shape of Fracture-like Breakouts, Engineering Geology, 69, 219–231, 2003.
  • Haimson B.C and F.H. Cornet, ISRM Suggested Method for Rock Stress Estimation: Hydraulic Fracturing and Hydraulic Testing of Pre-Existing Fractures, Intl. J. Rock Mech. and Mining Sci., vol. 40, 1011–1020, 2003.
  • Haimson, B.C., M.Y. Lee and I. Song, Shallow hydraulic fracturing measurements in Korea support tectonic and seismic indicators of regional stress, Intl. J. Rock Mech. and Mining Sci., vol. 40, 1243–1256, 2003.
  • Haimson, B, Borehole Breakouts in Crystalline and Granular Rocks as Indicators of In Situ Stress, in Rock Stress, eds. K. Sugawara, Y. Obara, and A. Sato, A.A. Balkema Publishers, Lisse, The Netherlands, p. 81-87, 2003.
  • Lee, M.Y. and B.C. Haimson, Hydraulic fracturing stress measurements at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, eds. K. Sugawara, Y. Obara, and A. Sato, A.A> Balkema Publishers, Lisse, The Netherlands, p. 161–166, 2003.
  • Haimson, B. and H. Lee, Borehole breakouts and compaction bands in two high-porosity sandstones, Intl. J. Rock Mech. and Mining Sci., vol. 41, 287–301, 2004.
  • Haimson, B. Hydraulic fracturing and rock characterization, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. vol. 41, No. 3, p. 391 and CD-ROM, Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd, 2004.
  • Haimson B. and C. Chang, Brittle fracture in two crystalline rocks under true triaxial compressive stresses, in Petrophysical Properties of Crystalline Rocks, Eds.: P.Harvey, T. Brewer, P. Pezard and V. Petrov, Geological Society of London Special Publication 240, p. 47–59, February 2005.
  • Chang, C. and B. Haimson, Nondilatant deformation and failure mechanism in two Long Valley Caldera rocks under true triaxial compression, Intl. J. Rock Mech. and Mining Sci. vol. 42, 402–414, 2005.
  • Haimson, B. True triaxial stresses and the brittle fracture of rock, Pure and Applied Geophysics (PAGEOPH), vol. 163, 1101–1130, 2006.
  • Haimson, B., Micromechanics of Rock Failure Leading to Borehole Breakouts in Rock, Intl. J. Rock Mech. and Mining Sci., vol. 44, 157–173, 2007).
  • Chang, C. and B. Haimson, Effect of fluid pressure on rock compressive failure in a nearly impermeable crystalline rock: Implication on mechanism of borehole breakouts, Engineering Geology, vol. 89, 230–242, 2007.
  • Haimson, B. and A. Klaetsch, Compaction Bands and the Formation of Slot-Shaped Breakouts in St. Peter Sandstone, in Geomechanics and Rock Physics for Reservoir and Repository Characterization, Eds. C. David and M. Le Ravelec-Dupin, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, vol. 284, 89–105, 2007.
  • Haruyuki Oku, Bezalel Haimson, and Sheng-Rong Song, True triaxial strength and deformability of the siltstone overlying the Chelungpu fault (Chi-Chi earthquake), Taiwan, Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 34, L09306, doi:10.1029/2007GL029601, 2007.
  • Haimson, B., A three-dimensional strength criterion based on true triaxial testing of rocks. Keynote: “Rock Characterization, Modelling and Engineering Design Methods”, Proceedings of the Intl. Symp. on Rock Mechanics SINOROCK 2009, Eds. J. Hudson, L. Tham, X-T Feng, and A. Kwong, p. 21-28, 2009.
  • Lin, W., Yeh, -E-C., Hung, J-H, Haimson, B., Hirono, T. Localized rotation of principal stress around faults and fractures determined from borehole breakouts in hole B of the Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project (TCDP), Tectonophysics, doi:10.1016/j.tecto, 2009.
    Katsman R., Aharonov, E., Haimson, B.C., Compaction bands induced by borehole drilling, Acta Geotechnica, doi:10.1007/s11440-009-0086-3, vol. 4, 151-162, 2009.
  • Haimson, B., Rudnicki, J.W., The effect of the intermediate principal stress on fault creation and angle in siltstone, Struct. Geol., doi:10.1016/j.jsg.,2009.
  • Haimson, B., Lin W., Oku H., Hung J.-H, Song S.-R., Integrating borehole breakout dimensions, strength criteria, and leak-off test results to constrain the state of stress across the Chelungpu Fault, Taiwan, Tectonophysics, vol. 482, 65-72, 2010.

Courses

Summer 2016

  • GLE 790 - Master\'s Research or Thesis
  • GLE 890 - Pre-Dissertator\'s Research
  • GLE 990 - Research and Thesis
  • Profile Summary

    Knowledge of the stress conditions in rock formations is important in tectonics and earthquake studies, in the design of structures in rock, and in the extraction of minerals by in situ methods. We developed the hydrofracturing method, which is now the universally accepted technique for measuring stresses through boreholes drilled in both shallow and deep formations.

    We search for alternative ways of estimating in situ stress at great depths. Currently, we are investigating the feasibility of using the borehole breakout phenomenon to obtain reliable information on magnitudes and directions of the stress tensor. In experiments with quartz-rich sandstones we discovered breakouts that are long and thin, and appear to be emptied compaction bands generated by the high stress concentration perpendicular to the maximum stress. This discovery may have important implications in the extraction of hydrocarbons.

    We have designed and fabricated a true triaxial loading apparatus and have shown that the conventional Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion, which disregards the effect of the intermediate principal stress, is only a conservative estimate of strength. We were able to present the new criterion in the form of an elegant function relating the octahedral shear stress at failure to the mean normal stress acting on the fracture plane.


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