Sanford A. Klein

Ouweneel-Bascom Professor

1305 Engineering Research Building
1500 Engineering Drive
Madison, WI 53706

Ph: (608) 263-5626
klein@engr.wisc.edu

Primary Affiliation:
Mechanical Engineering

Additional Affiliations:
Solar Energy Laboratory


Profile Summary

Professor Klein is the currently the Bascom Ouweneel Professor of Mechanical Engineering at University of Wisconsin – Madison and the director of the Solar Energy Laboratory. He received his Ph.D degree in Chemical Engineering at University of Wisconsin – Madison in 1976 and he has been on the faculty at Wisconsin since 1977, associated with the Solar Energy Laboratory. He is the author or co-author of more than 160 publications relating to energy systems and the co-author (with Professor Greg Nellis) of recent books in Heat Transfer and Thermodynamics published by Cambridge University Press. Professor Klein’s current research interests are in thermodynamics, refrigeration, and solar energy applications. In addition, he has also actively involved in the development of engineering computer tools for both instruction and research. He is the primary author of the TRNSYS (TRaNsient SYSytem) simulation program that is widely used for solar energy system studies. He also is the author of a finite element heat transfer program, FEHT, and the general engineering equation solving program, EES. Professor Klein is a Fellow of the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), the American Solar Energy Society (ASES), and the International Building Performance Simulation Association (IBPSA).

Education

  • BSChE, 1972, University of Illinois
  • MS, 1973, University of Wisconsin-Madison
  • PhD, 1976, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Research Interests

  • solar energy applications
  • thermodynamics
  • heat transfer
  • conservation
  • simulation methods
  • educational software
  • sorption processes

Awards, Honors and Societies

  • ASME Harry Potter Gold Medal 2013
  • Fellow - International Building Performance Simulation Association, 2013
  • Docteur “honoris causa” University of Liege, Belgium, 2007
  • Member and Fellow - American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2007
  • College of Engineering Byron Bird Award Excellence in a Research Publication, 2006
  • Bascom-Ouweneel Professorship, University of Wisconsin – Madison 2001 -
  • Member and Fellow (2000) of the International Solar Energy Society
  • Member and Fellow (1998) of the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers
  • Member of the American Society for Mechanical Engineers Pi Tau Sigma Distinguished Faculty Award (1991, 1992)
  • Polygon Outstanding Instructor Award (1991, 1992)
  • Chancellor\'s Award for Excellence in Teaching, UW-Madison (1990)
  • EDUCOM/NCRIPTAL Distinguished Software Award (1990)
  • Charles G. Abbot Award, Intl. Solar Energy Society (1989)

Publications

  • John P Edlebeck; Gregory F Nellis, Sanford A Klein, Mark H Anderson, Matthew P Wolf, \"Measurements of the Flow of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide through Short Orifices\", J. of Supercritical Fluids, accepted 10/13.
  • Nielsen, K, Nellis, G.F., and Klein, S.A., \"Numerical modeling of the impact of regenerator housing on the determination of Nusselt numbers\", International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 65, p.552-560, Oct 2013
  • Skye, H.M., Passow, K.L., Nellis, G.F., and Klein, S.A., “Empirically tuned model for a precooled MGJT cryoprobe,” Cryogenics, Vol. 52, pp. 590-603, 2012.
  • Teichel, S.H, Feierabend, L., Klein, S.A., and Reindl, D.T., An alternative method for calculation of semi-gray radiation heat transfer in solar central cavity receivers, Solar Energy, Vol. 86, Issue 6, June 2012, pp. 1899-1909.
  • Neises, T.W., Klein, S.A., and Reindl, D.T., Development of a Thermal Model for Photovoltaic Modules and Analysis of NOCT Guidelines, ASME J. Solar Energy Engineering, Vol. 134, Feb. 2012.
  • Pertzborn, A., Hackel, S., Nellis, G, and Klein, S.A., “Experimental validation of a ground heat exchanger model in a hybrid ground source heat pump, HVAC&R Research, 17(6):1101–1114, 2011.
  • Skye, Harrison M., Klein, S.A. and Nellis, G.F., Experimental Apparatus for Measuring the Performance of a Precooled Mixed Gas Joule Thomson Cryoprobe,” ASHRAE Transactions, ASHRAE, 2011-86020, (2011).
  • Boyd, Matt, T., Klein, S.A., Reindl, D.T., and Dougherty, B.P., Evaluation and Validation of Equivalent Circuit Photovoltaic Solar Cell Performance Models, ASME J. Solar Energy Engineering, Vol. 133, 2011
  • Myers, K, Klein, S.A., and Reindl, D.T., High Penetration of Solar Photovoltaics in Wisconsin Energy Policy, Volume 38, Issue 11, November, 2010 pp. 7338-7345
  • Jesper B. Jensen, Kurt Engelbrecht, Christian R. H. Bahla, Nini Pryds, Gregory F. Nellis, Sanford A. Klein, Brian Elmegaard, “Modeling of Parallel-Plate Regenerators with Non-Uniform Plate Distributions,”  International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 53, 2010, pp 5065-5072
  • Zhu, WS., White, M.J., Nellis, G.F., Klein, S.A., and Gianchandani, Y.B., “A Si/Glass Bulk-Micromachined Cryogenic Heat Exchanger for High Heat Loads: Fabrication, Test and Application Results, J. of Microelectromechanical Systems, Vol. 19, No. 1, Feb. 2010, pp. 38-47
  • Park, J.M., Evans, A.T., Rasmussen, K., Brosten, T.R., Nellis ,G.F., Klein, S.A.,  Gianchandani, Y.B, “A Microvalve with Integrated Sensors and Customizable Normal State for Low-Temperature Operation,”,J. of Microelectromechanical Systems, Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 868-877, August, 2009.
  • Rojas, D., Beermann, J., Klein, S.A., and Reindl, D.T., “Thermal Performance Testing of Flat-Plate Collectors,” Solar Energy, Vol. 82, No. 8, pp. 746-757, 2008
  • Hackel, S., Nellis, G.F., Klein, S.A., \"Optimization of Cooling Dominated Hybrid Ground Coupled Heat Pump Systems RP#1384\", ASHRAE Transactions, paper TRNS-00116-2008. (2009)
  • Skye, H.M., Klein, S.A. and Nellis, G.F.,  “Modeling and Optimization of a Two-Stage Mixed Gas Joule-Thomson Cryoprobe System (RP-1472),” ASHRAE Transactions, TRNS-00196-2008, (2008)
  • Park, J.M., Taylor, R.P., Evans, A.T., Brosten, T.R., Nellis ,G.F., Klein, S.A., Feller, J.R., Salerno, L. and B. Gianchandani, Y.B, “A Piezoelectric Microvalve for Cryogenic Applications,” J. Micromechanics and Microengineering, Vol. 18, 2008
  • Brosten, T.R., Park, J.M., Evans, A.T., Rasmussen, K, Nellis ,G.F., Klein, S.A., Feller, J.R., Salerno, L. and B. Gianchandani, Y.B, “A Numerical Flow Model and Experimental Results of A Cryogenic Micro-Valve for Distributed Cooling Applications,” Cyrogenics, Vol. 47, Issues 9-10, pp. 501-509, September-October, 2007
  • Arias, D.A., McMahan, A.C. and Klein, S.A., “Sensitivity of Long-Term Performance Simulations of Solar Energy System to the Degree of Stratification in the Thermal Storage Unit,” Int. J. of Energy Research, Vol. 32, Issue 3, pp. 242-254, June, 2007.
  • Aljuwayhel, N.F., Reindl, D.T., Klein, S.A. and Nellis, G.F., “Experimental Investigation Of the Performance Of Industrial Evaporator Coils Operating Under Frosting Conditions”  Int. J. of Refrigeration, Vo. 31, Issue 1,pp. 98-106,  Jan. (2008) 
  • Aljuwayhel, N.F., Reindl, D.T., Klein, S.A. and Nellis, G.F., “Comparison of Parallel- and Counter-flow Circuiting in an Industrial Evaporator Under Frosting Conditions,” Int. J. of Refrigeration, Vol. 30, Issue 8, pp. 1347-1357, December, 2007.
  • Edwards, K.R, Klein, S.A., and Reindl, D.T., “Energy Monitoring and Building Simulation of a University Laboratory Research Facility,” ASHRAE Transactions, Paper LB-07-032, 2007
  • Engelbrecht, K., Nellis, G.F., S. Klein, S.A. and Zimm, C. B., “Recent Developments in Room Temperature Active Magnetic Regenerative Refrigeration,\" HVAC&R Research, No. 4 pp. 525-542, July, 2007.
  • McMahan, A., Klein, S.A., and Reindl, D.T., “A Finite-Time Thermodynamic Framework for Optimizing Solar-Thermal Power Plants,” ASME Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, Vol. 129, Issue 4, pp. 355-362, November, 2007
  • Maytal, B.Z., Nellis, G.F., Klein, S.A., and Pfotenhauer, J.M., “Elevated-pressure mixed coolants Joule-Thomson cryocooling, Cryogenics, Vol. 46, No. 1, pp. 55-67, 2006
  • H. M. Skye, D. W. Hoch, G. F. Nellis, J. R. Maddocks, S. A. Klein, T. Roberts, and T. Davis, \"Rectified Continuous Flow Loop for the Thermal Management of Large Structures,\" Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, AIP, Melville, NY, Vol. 51, pp. 1809-1818, (2006).
  • K. Engelbrecht, G. Nellis, and S. Klein, \"Predicting the Performance of an Active Magnetic Regenerator Refrigerator used for Space Cooling and Refrigeration,\" Journal of Heating, Ventilation, Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration, Vol. 12, No. 4, October, (2006).
  • Nellis, G.F., and Klein, S.A., Regenerative Heat Exchanger with Significant Entrained Fluid Heat Capacity, Int. J. of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 49, Issues 1-2, pp. 329-340, 2006
  • Englebrecht, K.L, Nellis, G.F., and Klein, S.A., “The Effect of Internal Temperature Gradients on Regenerator Matrix Performance,” Journal of Heat Transfer,  Vol. 128, p. 1060, 2006
  • Fredrickson, K., Nellis, G.F., and Klein, S.A., “A Design Method for Mixed Gas Joule-Thompson Refrigeration Cryosurgical Probes,” Intl. J. of Refrigeration, Vol. 29, No. 5, pp. 700-715, 2006
  • Braun, R.J. Klein, S.A., and Reindl, D.T., “Evaluation of system configurations for solid oxide fuel cell-based micro-combined heat and power generators in residential applications”, Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 158, pp. 1290-1305, (2006)
  • Skye, H.M., Nellis, G.F., and Klein, S.A. ,”Comparison of CFD Analysis to Empirical Data in a Commercial Vortex Tube, Intl. J. of Refrigeration, Vol. 29, Issue 1, pp. 71-80, 2006
  • Klein, S.A. and Reindl, D.T., “Solar Refrigeration”, ASHRAE Journal, September, pS26-S30, 2005
  • DeSoto, W, Klein, S.A., and Beckman, W.A., “Improvement and validation of a model for photovoltaic array performance,” Solar Energy, Vol 80, No. 1, pp. 78-88, 2006
  • Aljuwayhel, N.F., Nellis, G.F., and Klein, S.A., “Parameteric and Internal Study of the Vortex Tube using a CFD Model, UIntl. J. of Refrigeration,U Vol. 28, No. 3, pp.442-450, May, 2005
  • Vijaykumar, G., Kummert, M., Klein, S.A., and Beckman, W.A., “Analysis of Short-Term Solar Radiation data”, Solar Energy Journal, Vol. 79, No. 5, pp. 495-504, 2005
  • Hoffenbecker, N, Klein, S.A. and Reindl, D.T., , “Hot Gas Defrost Model Development and Validation:, UIntl. J. of Refrigeration,U Vol. 28, No. 4, pp.605-615, June, 2005.
  • Keppler, F., Nellis, G.F., and Klein, S.A., Optimization of the Composition of a Gas Mixture in a Joule-Thomson Cycle, UInt. J. of HVAC and Refrigerating ResearchU, Vol. 10, No. 2, April, 2004.
  • G.O. Schlegel, F.W. Burkholder, S.A. Klein, W.A. Beckman, B.D. Wood, J.D. Muhs, “Analysis of A Full Spectrum Hybrid Lighting System,” USolar EnergyU, Vol. 76, No. 4, pp. 359-368, 2004.
  • Freund, S, Klein, S.A., and Reindl, D.T, “Energy Savings Potential of Energy Recovery Ventilation in an Animal Housing Facility,” UASHRAE TransactionsU, Vol. 110, Pt. 1, 2004.
  • Braun, R.J, Klein, S.A., and Reindl, D.T., “Considerations in the Design and Application of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Energy Systems in Residential Markets,” UASHRAE TransactionsU, Vol. 110, Pt. 1, 2004.
  • El-Morsi, M., Klein, S.A., and Reindl, D.T., “Air Washers: A New Look at a Vintage Technology,”, UASHRAE JournalU, October, 2003.
  • Freund, S, Klein, S.A., and Reindl, D.T, “A Semi-empirical Method to Estimate Enthalpy Exchanger Performance and a Comparison of Alternative Frost Control Strategies”, UInt. J. of HVAC and Refrigerating ResearchU, Vol. 9, No. 4, October, 2003
  • Manske, K.A., Klein, S.A., and Reindl, D.T., “Load Sharing Strategies in Multiple Compressor Refrigeration Systems,” AUSHRAE TransactionsU, V.108, Pt. 1, 2002.
  • Yu, D., Klein, S.A., and Reindl, S.A., “An Evaluation of Silica Gel for Humidity Control in Display Cases,” Western Association for Art Conservation,” Vol. 23, No.2, May, 2001;  also in different form in “Investigation of Solid Adsorbents for Humidity Control in Display Cases”, UASHRAE TransactionsU, V.108, Pt. 1, 2002.
  • Goodheart, K., Klein, S.A., and Schultz, Ken, “Economic Assessment of Low Firing Temperature Absorption Chiller Systems,”U ASHRAE TransactionsU, V.108, Pt. 1, 2002. .
  • Morner, S. O. and Klein, S.A.m “Experimental Evaluation of the Dynamic Behavior of an Air-Breathing Fuel Cell Stack,” UJ. of Solar Energy EngU., Vol. 123, pp. 225-231, 2001. .
  • Braun, R.J., S.A. Klein, and Reindl, D.T. “Operating point analyses for solid oxide fuel cell systems,” UProc. of the 4th European Solid Oxide Fuel Cell ForumU, Lucerne, Switzerland, (2000), pp. 459-468.
  • Manske, K.A., Klein, S.A., and Reindl, D.T., “Evaporative Condenser Control in Industrial Refrigeration Systems,” UInternational Journal of RefrigerationU, Vol 24, pp 676-691, 2001. .
  • Klein, S.A. Reindl, D.T., and Brownell, K., \"Refrigeration System Performance Using Liquid-Suction Heat Exchangers,\" International Journal of Refrigeration, Vol. 23, No.8 2000,
  • McLinden, M.O., Klein, S.A., and Perkins, R.A., \"An Extended Corresponding States Model for the Thermal Conductivity of Refrigerants and Refrigerant Mixtures,\" International Journal of Refrigeration, Vol. 23, (2000), pp 43-63.
  • Klein, S.A., \"Integration of an Equation Solving Program into an Energy Systems Laboratory Course,\"ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 105, Pt.1, No. CH-99-13-1, 1999.
  • S.A. Klein and D.T. Reindl, \"The Relationship of Optimum Heat Exchanger Allocation and Minimum Entropy Generation of Refrigeration Cycles\", ASME Journal of Energy Resources, Vol. 120, No. 2, pp. 172-178, 1998.
  • Klein, S.A., McLinden, M.O., Laesecke, A., \"An Improved Extended Corresponding States Method for Estimation of Viscosity of Pure Refrigerants and Mixtures,\" International Journal of Refrigeration, Vol. 20, No. 3, 1997, pp. 208-217.
  • Ahmed. O., Mitchell, J.W., Klein, S.A, \"Application of General Regression Neural Network (GRNN) in HVAC Process Identification and Control,\" ASHRAE Trans., 102 (1996).
  • Absorption Chillers and Heat Pumps, (with K.E. Herold and R. Radermacher), CRC Press (1996).
  • Steich, G., Klein, S.A., Mitchell, J.W, \"Performance of Rotary Heat and Mass Exchangers,\"Int. J. of HVAC and Refrigerating Research, 1(4), 308-323 (1995).

 

Links

Courses

Fall 2014-2015

  • ME 699 - Advanced Independent Study
  • ME 561 - Intermediate Thermodynamics
  • ME 491 - Mechanical Engineering Projects I
  • ME 990 - Dissertator Research and Thesis
  • ME 790 - Master\'s Research and Thesis
  • ME 567 - Solar Energy Technology
  • CBE 567 - Solar Energy Technology
  • Profile Summary

    Professor Klein is the currently the Bascom Ouweneel Professor of Mechanical Engineering at University of Wisconsin – Madison and the director of the Solar Energy Laboratory. He received his Ph.D degree in Chemical Engineering at University of Wisconsin – Madison in 1976 and he has been on the faculty at Wisconsin since 1977, associated with the Solar Energy Laboratory. He is the author or co-author of more than 160 publications relating to energy systems and the co-author (with Professor Greg Nellis) of recent books in Heat Transfer and Thermodynamics published by Cambridge University Press. Professor Klein’s current research interests are in thermodynamics, refrigeration, and solar energy applications. In addition, he has also actively involved in the development of engineering computer tools for both instruction and research. He is the primary author of the TRNSYS (TRaNsient SYSytem) simulation program that is widely used for solar energy system studies. He also is the author of a finite element heat transfer program, FEHT, and the general engineering equation solving program, EES. Professor Klein is a Fellow of the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), the American Solar Energy Society (ASES), and the International Building Performance Simulation Association (IBPSA).


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