John H. Booske

Duane H. and Dorothy M. Bluemke Professor

3436 Engineering hall
1415 Engineering Drive
Madison, WI 53706

Ph: (608) 890-0804
booske@engr.wisc.edu

Primary Affiliation:
Electrical and Computer Engineering

Additional Affiliations:
Materials Science Program,


Profile Summary

My research interests cover a broad range of problems involving electromagnetic fields and waves. Generally, topics of interest to me are related to some aspect of new sources and/or applications of high frequency (i.e., radio frequency to microwave to x-ray) electromagnetic radiation. Specific examples of recent research problems are outlined below.

New advances in communications, radar, solid state spectroscopy, remote sensing, fusion energy research, and materials processing require the development of tunable, wideband, high-power sources of coherent electromagnetic radiation in the microwave, millimeter, submillimeter, and higher frequency regimes. Solid state sources do not, and will not, satisfy all of the needs of such applications, as many require higher total efficiency and powers in much smaller packages than a solid-state-based device can provide. These needs require high-tech vacuum devices which employ electron beams. Our research in this area enables improved devices with higher power, higher frequency, more compact size, greater efficiency, better linearity, new abilities to linearly amplify multiple signals simultaneously, etc.

Currently, for example, my research interests are focused on increasing the power and/or frequency of high power vacuum electron sources of microwaves, millimeter-waves, and terahertz-regime radiation. One challenge is to find new cathodes, capable of emitting high current densities with reduced heating, or even operating at room temperature (via field emission). Another challenge is to understand the fundamental physics of ohmic dissipation in conducting surfaces at millimeter-wave and terahertz-regime frequencies (100 - 3000 GHz). This knowledge will provide guidance on the required surface conditions to minimize this source of radiation loss in waveguides and cavities. I also continue to have interest in the development of miniature sources of millimeter-wave and THz regime radiation (30 GHz - 3 THz) using microfabricated vacuum electron devices.

Many of my current interests in electromagnetic fields research emphasize biological or biomedical applications -- i.e., bioelectromagnetics. For example, in collaboration with Professor Hagness and many others we recently completed the first comprehensive and definitive study on the microwave dielectric properties of human breast tissue, both healthy and cancerous. This data will be used to develop improved methods for breast cancer detection and treatment protocols based on microwave imaging and heating. In another project, we are investigating how to optimize and exploit the phenomenon of electroporation where pores form in the membranes of cells when exposed to short pulses of intense electric fields. The insights of this research are applicable to cancer and other tissue disease treatments, as well as, we believe, to possible strategies for tissue engineering and regeneration.

Education

  • PhD 1985, University of Michigan

Research Interests

  • plasmas, metamaterials, metasurfaces and media that have a strong interaction with electromagnetic radiation, especially in the rf-to-microwave-to-terahertz frequency regimes. 
  • electromagnetic field effects: how do pulsed electric fields affect biological cells? How do electric fields affect materials\' chemistry or cell metabolism? How do microwaves propagate in and get absorbed by biological tissues and how do nano-particles alter this? How do surface imperfections affect millimeter- and terahertz-wave absorption in conductors?
  • microwave vacuum electronics: what fundamental advances in cathodes, materials and electromagnetic design enable us to generate higher power at high frequencies with higher efficiency yet smaller devices? What strategies protect sensitive electronics from harm by high power microwave fields?
  • innovative teaching and learning methods and instructional space design

Awards, Honors and Societies

  • American Society for Engineering Education
  • Materials Research Society
  • UW-Madison IEEE Professor of the Year (2 times)
  • UW-Madison, Polygon Engineering Student Council ECE Outstanding Instructor (4 times)
  • ECE Holdridge Teaching Excellence Award
  • Fellow of the University of Wisconsin-Madison Teaching Academy
  • National Science Foundation Presidential Young Investigator
  • UW Chancellor\'s Distinguished Teaching Award
  • Benjamin Smith Reynolds Award for Excellence in Teaching Engineers
  • Vilas Associate Award for Research
  • Duane H. and Dorothy M. Bluemke Professor of Engineering
  • Fellow, Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE)
  • Fellow, American Physical Society

Publications

  • X. He, J. Scharer, J.H. Booske, N. Sule, S. Sengele, Examination of cathode emission area variation with applied electric field, J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 105, Art. # 096102 (2009).
  • V. Vlahos, Y.L. Lee, J.H. Booske, D. Morgan, L. Turek, M. Kirshner, R. Kowalczyk, C. Wilsen, Ab initio investigation of the surface properties of dispenser B-type and scandate thermionic emission cathodes, Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 94, Art # 184102 (2009).
  • C.L. Kory, M.E. Read, R.L. Ives, J.H. Booske, P. Borchard, Design of Overmoded Interaction Circuit for 1-kW 95-GHz TWT, IEEE Trans. Elec. Dev., Vol. 56, 713-720 (2009).
  • A.M. Marconnet, M.M. He, S. Sengele, S.-J. Ho, H.R. Jiang, N.J. Ferrier, D.W. van der Weide, V. Madhavan, N. Nelson, J.H. Booske, Microfabricated Silicon High-Frequency Waveguide Couplers and Antennas, IEEE Trans. Elec. Dev., Vol. 56, 721-729 (2009).
  • S. Sengele, H.R. Jiang, J.H. Booske, C.L. Kory, D.W. van der Weide, R.L. Ives, Microfabrication and Characterization of a Selectively Metallized W-Band Meander-Line TWT Circuit, IEEE Trans. Elec. Dev., Vol. 56, pp. 730-737 (2009).
  • A. Mashal, J.H. Booske, S.C. Hagness, Toward contrast-enhanced microwave-induced thermoacoustic imaging of breast cancer: an experimental study of the effects of microbubbles on simple thermoacoustic targets, Phys. Med. Bio., Vol. 54, pp. 641-650 (2009).
  • Stephen M. Kennedy, Zhen Ji, Jonathan C. Hedstrom,John H. Booske, Susan C. Hagness, Real Time Quantification of Electroporative Uptake and Field Heterogeneity Effects in Cells, Biophys. J., Vol. 94, No. 12, pp. 5018 - 5027 (2008).
  • John H. Booske, Plasma physics and related challenges of millimeter-to-terahertz and high power microwave generation, Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 15, 055502, (2008).
  • X. He, J. Scharer, J. Booske, and S. Sengele, One dimensional combined field and thermionic emission model and comparison with experimental results, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. Vol 26, No. 2, pp 770-777 (2008).
  • C.J. Bonifas, K. Thompson, J.H. Booske, and R.F. Cooper, An examination of athermal, photonic effects on boron diffusion and activation during microwave rapid thermal processing, Journal of Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy, Vol. 42, 23-34 (2008).
  • C.J. Bonifas, A. Marconnet, J. Perry, J.H. Booske, and R.F. Cooper, Microwave-induced mass transport enhancement in nano-porous aluminum oxide membranes, Journal of Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy, Vol. 42, 13-22 (2008).
  • M. Lazebnik, M. Okoniewski, J.H. Booske, S.C. Hagness, Highly accurate Debye models for normal and malignant breast tissue dielectric properties at microwave frequencies, IEEE Micr. Wireless Comp. Lett., Vol. 17, pp. 822-824 (2007).
  • V. Vlahos, J.H. Booske, D. D. Morgan, The Effects of Thin CsI coatings on the Work Function of Graphite Cathodes using Ab-initio Modeling, Appl. Phys. Lett, Vol. 91, 144102 (2007).
  • X. He, J. Scharer, J. Booske, and S. Sengele,Modeling of cold emission cathode by inclusion of combined field and thermionic emission processes, J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 102,056107(2007).
  • R. Miller, Y.Y. Lau, and J.H. Booske,Electric field distribution on knife-edge field emitters, Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 91, 074105, (2007).
  • Mariya Lazebnik, Dijana Popovic, Leah McCartney, Cynthia B Watkins, Mary J Lindstrom, Josephine Harter, Sarah Sewall, Travis Ogilvie, Anthony Magliocco, Tara M Breslin, Walley Temple, Daphne Mew, John H Booske, Michal Okoniewski, and Susan C Hagness, A large-scale study of the ultrawideband microwave dielectric properties of normal, benign, and malignant breast tissues obtained from cancer surgeries, Phys. Med. Biol., vol. 52, 6093-6115 (2007).
  • M. Lazebnik, L. McCartney, D. Popovic, C.B. Watkins, M.J. Lindstrom, J. Harter, S Sewall, A. Magliocco, J.H. Booske, M. Okoniewski, S.C. Hagness, A large-scale study of the ultrawideband microwave dielectric properties of normal breast tissue obtained from reduction surgeries, Phys. Med. Biol., Vol. 52,2637-2656 (2007).
  • M. Lazebnik, M.C. Converse, J.H. Booske, and S.C. Hagness, Ultrawideband temperature-dependent dielectric properties of animal liver tissue in the microwave frequency range, Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 51, 1941-1955 (2006).
  • Z. Ji, S.M. Kennedy, J.H. Booske, and S.C. Hagness, Experimental studies of dynamic cellular membrane response by electroporation of HL-60 cells, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 34(4) II, 1416-1424 (2006).
  • C.Marchewka, P. Larsen, S. Bhattacharjee, J. Booske, S. Sengele, N. Ryskin, and V. Titov, Generation of chaotic radiation in a driven TWT amplifier with time-delayed feedback, Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 13, 013104 (2006).
  • Keith Thompson, John H. Booske, David J. Larson, and Thomas F. Kelly, Three dimensional atom mapping of dopants in Si nanostructures, Applied Phys. Lett., Vol. 87, 052108 (2005).
  • Z. Ji, S.C. Hagness, J.H. Booske, S. Mathur, M. Meltz, FDTD Analysis of a Gigahertz TEM Cell for Ultrawideband Pulse Exposure Studies of Biological Specimens, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Engr., 53(5), 780-789 (2006).
  • D. Popovic, L. McCartney, C. Beasley, M. Lazebnik, M. Okoniewski, S. Hagness, J. Booske,Precision Open-Ended Coaxial Probes for In Vivo and Ex Vivo Dielectric Spectroscopy of Biological Tissues at Microwave Frequencies ,IEEE Trans. Micr. Thy. Tech. 53(5), 1713-1722 (2005).
  • K. Thompson, J.H. Booske, R.L. Ives, J. Lohr, Y. Gorelov, K. Kajiwara, Millisecond Microwave Annealing: Driving Micro-Electronics Nano , J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B ,Vol. 23, 970-978 (2005).
  • Mark C. Converse, John H. Booske and Susan C. Hagness, Impulse Amplification in a Helix Traveling Wave Tube: I. Simulation and Experimental Validation , IEEE Trans. Plasma Science , Vol. 32 [3],1040-1048, (2004).
  • J.G. Wohlbier and J.H. Booske, Mechanisms for phase distortion in a traveling wave tube, Phys. Rev. E Vol. 69, 066502 (2004).
  • A. Singh, J. G. Wohlbier, J. H.Booske, J. E. Scharer, Experimental Verification of the Mechanisms for Nonlinear Harmonic Growth and Suppression by Harmonic Injection in a Traveling Wave Tube, Phys. Rev. Lett. Vol. 92, 205005 (2004).
  • S. Bhattacharjee, J.H. Booske, C.L. Kory, D.W. van der Weide, S. Limbach, S. Gallagher, J. Welter, M.R. Lopez, R.M. Gilgenbach, R.L. Ives, M.E. Read, R. Divan, and D.C. Mancini, Folded waveguide traveling wave tube sources for THz radiation , IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science 32[3], 1002-1014 (2004).
  • A. Choffrut, B. VanVeen, and J.H. Booske, TWT Linearization using LINC architecture IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 50(5), 1405-1408 (2003).
  • D.M. Hagl, D. Popovic, S.C. Hagness, J.H. Booske, M. Okoniewski,Sensing Volume of Open-Ended Coaxial Probes for Dielectric Characterization of Breast Tissue at Microwave Frequencies IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Techniques 51(4), 1194-1206 (2003).
  • Keith Thompson, Yogesh B. Gianchandani, John Booske, Reid Cooper, Direct Si-Si Bonding by Electromagnetic Induction Heating , J. MicroElectroMechanical Systems 11(4), 285-292(2002).
  • K. Thompson, J.H. Booske, Y.B. Gianchandani, and R.F. Cooper, Electromagnetic Annealing for the 100 nm Technology Node , IEEE Elec. Dev. Lett. 23(3), 127-129(2002).
  • S. Bhattacharjee, C. Marchewka, J. Welter, R. Kowalczyk, C.B. Wilsen, J.H. Booske, Y.Y. Lau, M.W. Keyser, A. Singh, J.E. Scharer, R.M Gilgenbach, M.J. Neumann,Suppression of third-order intermodulation in a klystron by third-order injection, Physical Review Letters 90(9), art. no. 098303, (2003).
  • J.G. Wohlbier, J.H. Booske, I. Dobson, Generation and growth rates of nonlinear distortions in a traveling wave tube, Physical Review E 66(5), article no. 056504 NOV (2002).
  • J.G. Wohlbier, J.H. Booske, I. Dobson, The Multifrequency Spectral Eulerian (MUSE) Model of a Traveling Wave Tube, IEEE Trans. Plasma Science 30(3), 1063-1075 (2002).
  • M. Wirth, A. Singh, J. Scharer, and J. Booske, Third-Order Intermodulation Reduction by Harmonic Injection in a TWT Amplifier,IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 49(6), 1082-1084 (2002).
  • Modern Microwave and Millimeter Wave Power Electronics, R.J. Barker, J.H. Booske, N.C. Luhmann, and G.S. Nusinovich, Eds., (IEEE Press and Wiley, 2005).
  • ...SELECTED LIST, SINCE 2002...

Links

Courses

Summer 2014

  • NE 749 - Coherent Generation and Particle Beams

  • PHYSICS 749 - Coherent Generation and Particle Beams
  • ECE 990 - Research or Thesis
  • ECE 890 - Pre-Dissertator\'s Research
  • ECE 790 - Master\'s Research or Thesis
  • ECE 749 - Coherent Generation and Particle Beams
  • ECE 699 - Advanced Independent Study
  • ECE 491 - Senior Design Project
  • ECE 399 - Independent Study
  • ECE 999 - Advanced Independent Study
  • ECE 219 - Analytical Methods for Electromagnetics Engineering
  • ECE 489 - Honors in Research
  • ECE 990 - Research or Thesis
  • ECE 890 - Pre-Dissertator\'s Research
  • ECE 790 - Master\'s Research or Thesis
  • ECE 699 - Advanced Independent Study
  • ECE 399 - Independent Study
  • ECE 489 - Honors in Research
  • Profile Summary

    My research interests cover a broad range of problems involving electromagnetic fields and waves. Generally, topics of interest to me are related to some aspect of new sources and/or applications of high frequency (i.e., radio frequency to microwave to x-ray) electromagnetic radiation. Specific examples of recent research problems are outlined below.

    New advances in communications, radar, solid state spectroscopy, remote sensing, fusion energy research, and materials processing require the development of tunable, wideband, high-power sources of coherent electromagnetic radiation in the microwave, millimeter, submillimeter, and higher frequency regimes. Solid state sources do not, and will not, satisfy all of the needs of such applications, as many require higher total efficiency and powers in much smaller packages than a solid-state-based device can provide. These needs require high-tech vacuum devices which employ electron beams. Our research in this area enables improved devices with higher power, higher frequency, more compact size, greater efficiency, better linearity, new abilities to linearly amplify multiple signals simultaneously, etc.

    Currently, for example, my research interests are focused on increasing the power and/or frequency of high power vacuum electron sources of microwaves, millimeter-waves, and terahertz-regime radiation. One challenge is to find new cathodes, capable of emitting high current densities with reduced heating, or even operating at room temperature (via field emission). Another challenge is to understand the fundamental physics of ohmic dissipation in conducting surfaces at millimeter-wave and terahertz-regime frequencies (100 - 3000 GHz). This knowledge will provide guidance on the required surface conditions to minimize this source of radiation loss in waveguides and cavities. I also continue to have interest in the development of miniature sources of millimeter-wave and THz regime radiation (30 GHz - 3 THz) using microfabricated vacuum electron devices.

    Many of my current interests in electromagnetic fields research emphasize biological or biomedical applications -- i.e., bioelectromagnetics. For example, in collaboration with Professor Hagness and many others we recently completed the first comprehensive and definitive study on the microwave dielectric properties of human breast tissue, both healthy and cancerous. This data will be used to develop improved methods for breast cancer detection and treatment protocols based on microwave imaging and heating. In another project, we are investigating how to optimize and exploit the phenomenon of electroporation where pores form in the membranes of cells when exposed to short pulses of intense electric fields. The insights of this research are applicable to cancer and other tissue disease treatments, as well as, we believe, to possible strategies for tissue engineering and regeneration.


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